Burkinabé people, a small hope for a different Africa

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© IBI World Limited

The World Gold Council[1] said on July 14, 2020 in the midst of the Covid outbreak: “Investors have adopted gold as a key strategy to hedge portfolios in 2020. The pandemic is likely to have a lasting effect (…) and values ​​too much the strengthening of gold as a strategic resource[2]. A few days later, on August 5, gold hit its highest price ever: $ 2,048 an ounce[3]. A result that almost sounds like a curse when you consider that the people who live in the most desperate misery are also those who sit on huge deposits of gold, but hardly profit from them[4].

One of those nations rich in natural resources is Burkina Faso[5], a country that originated in the valley millions of years ago and is surrounded by a huge plateau that is home to the long Niger River in its infancy, each The year is separated in two completely opposite seasons: the drought of the Sahara in summer, and a lush alluvial area full of lakes and rivers in winter[6]. It is also one of the poorest nations in the world where “people are still dying of hunger, thirst and malaria[7]. In this country, whose name means “Land of People of Integrity[8], gold is the most important mineral resource, the extraction of which is in the hands of Australian, Canadian and Russian companies[9].

There was an explosion in gold production in Burkina Faso between 2000 and 2010: in just a few years, Burkina Faso became the fifth largest exporter of gold on the African continent (after Ghana, South Africa , Sudan and Mali)[10]. With 17 active mines and 60 tons of production in 2020 – in 2015 it was only 35 tons – gold is not even suffering from the global crisis due to the pandemic: it is an annual turnover of 2000 billion FCFA, more than 3 billion euros and in 2021, the volume will continue to grow, as three new mines are expected to enter the production phase[11].

According to the World Bank, gold production has largely contributed to improving the trade balance: along with cotton, gold represents about 95% of the country’s export demands[12]. It is mainly Switzerland and India[13] that buy gold, while the cotton market[14] is mainly linked to neighboring countries, Burkina Faso being the fourth mainland producer of cotton. According to the African Development Bank (AfDB), these two products will help the country recover from the effects of Covid-19: the bank estimates the average growth of the continental market at around 3.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) against a decrease of -2.1% in 2020[15]. Burkina Faso is one of the ten countries which, according to the ADB study, will experience annual economic growth of more than 5%[16].

The government is making great efforts, supported by national private partners and global institutions, which are closer to the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES), inaugurated in 2016, which works in a coordinated manner in several sectors (agriculture, environment, education, energy, infrastructure, health and telecommunications[17]) and is about to be renewed and updated for the five-year period 2021-2025[18]. AfDB has guaranteed $ 62 million for its financing, the World Bank has provided $ 310 million and the European Union has provided $ 116 million[19]. Burkina Faso will be the first country in the Sahel to benefit from the World Bank’s complementary financing plan for the most fragile countries[20].

In 2021, the government of Ouagadougou (which has been in power since January 21) will have to adopt the law on public-private partnership and one on the promotion of domestic savings (one of the weakest on the continent), which no is more than 5.7% of gross domestic product, while the average for West Africa is 19%[21]. Burkina Faso’s GDP, calculated at over 44 billion euros in 2019, is equal to or greater than that of many other African and Asian countries and slightly lower than that of Estonia and Bosnia[22], and the growth rate annual is even higher than that of Rwanda, the country which is known as the Switzerland of Africa[23]. However, the average per capita income is only $ 2,000 a year[24], and that’s only thanks to the rich salaries of those who work in resource management – most people go hungry.

The nightmare of the Jihad

Advertising for Boko Haram in the streets and in the countryside of Burkina Faso[25]

One of the main reasons for the misery of the population is the fact that the country has gone through decades of wars: from 1958, the year of independence, various dictators from or from tribal militias or the regular army at the head of Upper Volta succeeded them[26]. The only one who ever tried to convey a sense of belonging to the region’s ethnic assembly and then honestly tried to do something for his people was Thomas Sankara, an army officer who, after years of massacres, became the pacifist and guitarist of the group Tout-à-Coup-Jazz[27] before being drawn into another civil war, becoming Prime Minister in 1982 and president a year later[28].

Sankara literally overthrows Upper Volta, which he renames in Burkina Faso, the “land of upright men”[29]: emancipation of women, prohibition of infibulation and polygamy, punishment not of prostitutes but of their exploiters, campaign for them. contraceptives and against AIDS, opening military and political careers for women, encouraging women to go to university through scholarships[30]; Fight against corruption (for example, by replacing blue Mercedes by Renault 5[31]); Replacement of western nightclubs (very expensive) with free and popular dance halls and, in general, fight against the importation of foreign brand products[32]; Reduced salary from politics (he himself was earning $ 450 a month and when he died he had $ 150 in his bank account and his inheritance was a small apartment and a guitar)[33].

The list of Sankara’s reforms is long: subsidizing agriculture and small businesses, shifting the army from professionalism to general conscription (to reduce the power of the army[34]); Creation of the People’s Houses (where officials listened to people’s complaints), major campaign for blood donation, literacy and compulsory vaccination, tripling of places in schools and hospitals, tenfold increase in water sources drinkable[35].

A series of unique achievements marred by the iron fist with which he led the government during the five years of his power[36]. But his political and human journey was very short. On October 11, 1987, he was ambushed by those who were theoretically his closest friends[37]. As in the case of Che Guevara, they killed the man, but they increased the myth, because even today Thomas Sankara is the symbol of all Africans who want to get rid of medieval tribal ties and see themselves as a great, wonderful people – on the arduous march to a great destiny.

The one who came after him (the dictator Blaise Campaoré, who was probably also the murderous hand who killed Sankara) broke the reforms during the 27 years of his regime and plunged the country back into bloody tribal struggles[38]. But even the overthrow of his regime did nothing: from 2015, the Islamic Jihad used the territory of Burkina Faso as a hiding place after military actions in Mali, Chad, Niger, Benin and Togo[39] and killed everyone in his street. To date, at least 1,200 Burkinabé[40].

Between 2014 and 2019, there were 2,200 terrorist attacks in the Sahel, the central region that crosses all of West Africa, with 11,500 victims and millions of displaced people, most of whom are in hiding in Burkina Faso[41]. The attacks are carried out by different groups such as the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (Mujao), the Support Group for Islam and Muslims (Gsim), Boko Haram and Ansar ul Islam for indicate the most famous[42].

These groups take advantage of the conflicts that already exist between semi-nomadic pastoralists and permanent farmers who struggle to access available natural resources[43]. The military operation “Berkhane” was set up against these groups in 2014 at the suggestion of France: five thousand soldiers stationed in Chad in support of the armies of Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Chad have not yet succeeded in defeating extremist groups[44]. A similar result applies to the “Joint Force G5 Sahel”, the armed forces of the five states of the Sahelian zone[45]. Burkina Faso cannot achieve this without help, as the new President Roch Marc Kaborè underlined on February 9, 2021, during his meeting with the President of the European Council, Charles Michel, and the President of the European Parliament, David Sassoli, in Brussels[46].

The great gold rush

Thomas Sankara, one of the greatest heroes of the African continent[47]

Mines can help because they produce wealth, or they can be a curse because they produce violence and disorder. In Burkina Faso, the balance has not yet fluctuated decisively on both sides because the infrastructure is still lacking and a large part of the product comes from artisans who, as in the 19th century in North America, dig in the mud and sift the muddy waters of the rivers hope that every day is lucky and changes its destiny.

Artisanal extractions do not have a good reputation. Extraction of the metal poses serious risks to human health and the environment, and the economic benefits are limited. Artisanal mines have grown from 200 in 2003 to over 700 in 2014, and there are currently around a thousand[48]. The boom came during the great drought of 1984 when thousands of farmers starved to death, lost their land and found no alternative but to turn into miners[49].

It takes smugglers to sell gold: miners from Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger are connected to middlemen in Togo, which is then the hub of the United Arab Emirates’ black market[50]. A deal worth $ 2 billion a year, largely administered by jihadist groups, recently began targeting factories and workers at mining companies in the Sahel[51] to prevent the frenzy from continuing. According to Comtrade (the database of international trade statistics which was founded in Ljubljana in 1996 by scientist Veselin Jevrosimović, who today calculates data on all trade in the world on behalf of the United Nations), the Gold has increased, as has West African gold between the years 2006 and 2016 increased from 8% to 16% of total world production – almost entirely thanks to investments made by smugglers in the UAE[52].

However, smuggling does not follow the rules set by the international community. According to UNICEF data, between half a million and 700,000 adolescents break and carry stones and mud every day in Burkina Faso, breathe in highly toxic mercury powder, eight to ten hours a day – artisanal mines operate 24 hours a day[53]. In exchange, each worker has a guaranteed meal – the money is only there when the gold is found: 20% for those who have invested, between 1% and 10% for the owners of the land , the rest is between the workforce and the head of the divided village, which guarantees peace and efficiency[54]. A gram of gold sold on the official market in Ouagadougou is worth 10,000 FCFA (about 15 euros), provided it is proven that the foreman is a Burkinabé[55].

In any case, even artisanal mines improve the living standards of the local population so much that consumption consumption increased by 10%[56] between 2009 and 2014 (latest figure available) in artisanal mining regions. However, these are figures which concern the minimum share of artisanal production – that which does not disappear in Togo and then in the Emirates[57]. For this reason, of course, the state is fighting for the disappearance of artisanal miners and in 2015 reformed the mining law (law No. 36-2015)[58]. Since then, foreign multinationals have entered the country: Iamgold in Essakane and Semafo-Endeavor in Mana (both Canadian)[59] and Nordgold – a company controlled by the Russian oligarch Alexey Mordashov[60].

The overwhelming power of Nordgold

The science-fiction Severstal steel plant in Cherepovets in northwest Russia[61]

According to Forbes, he is the 51st richest man in the world with a fortune of around $ 32 billion[62]. In the years of the Soviet Union he graduated as an engineer and when the wall fell he was hired to lead the privatization of the Russian steel sector, which gave birth to the multinational group Severstal, which Mordashov has ruled for 19 years until he changed his private industrial and commercial interests had grown to allow him to step down[63], and he eventually joined the Moscow jet set and became one of the theater’s main financiers Bolshoi in Moscow[64].

Part of the new business is mining with Nordgold, a company founded in Moscow in 2007 with only a few mining concessions in Russia[65] which has now grown into a London-based multinational group which closed in 2020 with sales of 1.86 billion dollars and a net profit of 767 million dollars[66]. Nordgold has five mining sites in Russia, one in Kazakhstan, one in French Guiana, one in Guinea and three in Burkina Faso: Bissa, Bouly and Taparko[67]. The multinational has invested more than a billion dollars since 2009 and the three mines together represent a production volume of 360,000 ounces of gold, or 40% of the group’s total production[68].

While Nordgold’s website ensures that the multinational company complies with all ethical, environmental and recruiting rules[69], according to research by journalists and international NGOs, it looks a little different. First, because Islamic fundamentalism makes calls for nationalization more and more urgent: “In Burkina, the concessions granted to foreign companies such as the Canadian Semafo and the North Gold of the Russian steel magnate Alexey Mordashov do not mean no concrete benefits for rural people. On the contrary, they fuel the fire of fundamentalist propaganda: from the pulpits of mosques and the Internet, imams curse neo-colonialism which plunders national resources[70].

In addition, two of North Gold’s mines (Bissa Gold and Taparko Gold) suddenly stopped paying the agreed amounts for the Mining Fund for Local Development, which raised FCFA 51 billion for the Burkinabé population from 2015 to date (27,5 million USD)[71]. Some of this money went to forced relocations because residents of many villages close to the water had to leave their hometowns to move to drier areas and leave drinking water at the mines: Bissa Gold officially forcibly relocated 2783 people, but these are of course only indicative figures[72]. In Guinea, in the Lefa mine, it is worse; “In its abandoned tunnels, prospectors who came to look for falling gold die regularly because they are not profitable[73].

However, the central problem remains the management of a mine in a guerrilla zone where the regular national army is unable to enforce the peaceful conditions necessary for the normal daily operations of a mine. In 2019, the Australian company Perenti Global, co-owner of the mines managed by Nordgold, decided to leave Burkina Faso after a jihadist attack on its employees, killing 19 and injuring 26 people[74].

In one of the biggest trendy bars in Ouagadougou, we can clearly see that the Burkinabés are politically and culturally very aware of their place in the world[75]

The workers, engineers and management of the Nordgold Group are defended by an unknown number of militiamen from Russia who, on the one hand, have proven themselves capable of defending the mines against attacks by terrorist groups[76], but on the other part constitute a threat to the local population: In 2014, workers at the Bissa gold mine decided to call a general strike because the Somika company, which issued the mining permit, signed a specific contract with humanitarian guarantees. , social, health and union with the local population. Somika then sold the majority to Nordgold, which ignored previous agreements[77]. Nordgold’s mercenary troops responded with indiscriminate blows and even left the dead on the ground[78].

The government in Ouagadougou has neither the strength nor the will to react. From 1992, due to the very low level of trade in Burkina Faso and other West African countries, Russia closed its embassy and joined the Ivory Coast embassy[79], ​​as well as relocating from his diplomatic actions to local industrial companies – such as Nordgold. Based on the official exchange of messages between the two countries, it is believed that the Russian Federation cooperated with security militiamen around the mines following the terrorist attacks in Bissa Gold and Semafo[80].

But Burkina Faso is different from other African countries: its political and military elite is very weak, and therefore the rate of corruption (which exists) is relatively low[81]. Any incoming multinational is in itself richer than the country as a whole (as in the case of Nordgold)[82]. Burkina Faso is also a mixture of many ethnic groups who are constantly attacked from outside and live in peace and harmony with each other. In 2014, when Blaise Campaoré broke the law preventing a president from running for a second term for the umpteenth time, he announced he would stay. The Burkinabe people, along with all other ethnic groups, took to the streets peacefully and forced the president to give up – all peacefully[83].

Everything is happening informally – in the streets, with the participation of dozens of citizens’ committees and small NGOs, which take advantage of the fact that the GDP has increased tenfold in the last 20 years to participate in policy making. The country is deeply aware of the green present, plans development agreements with an emphasis on inclusion[84] and understands that from such a weakness in the country the trump card is to work together and share the international aid – accept that natural resources must be exploited by foreigners until the borders are secured, jihadism defeated and the basic infrastructure provided by the PNDES (schools, roads, hospitals, electricity, drinking water) are in square[85]. In the name of Thomas Sankara and of the “people of integrity” who will one day embrace the whole of the great African continent.

[1] https://www.gold.org/ . Associazione – fondata nel 1987 – che unisce, su scala internazionale, le maggiori aziende minerarie aurifere.

[2] https://www.farodiroma.it/africa-grande-corsa-alloro-monitoraggio-dellestrazione-mineraria-delle-nazioni-unite-di-a-martinengo/

[3] Angelo Martinengo, “Africa. Grande corsa all’ oro, monitoraggio dell’estrazione mineraria delle Nazioni Unite”, “Faro di Roma”, 18 Gennaio 2021, https://www.farodiroma.it/africa-grande-corsa-alloro-monitoraggio-dellestrazione-mineraria-delle-nazioni-unite-di-a-martinengo/

[4] Rémi Bazillier-Victoire Girard, “Malédiction des ressources naturelles et mines artisanales: le cas de l’or au Burkina Faso”, https://theconversation.com/malediction-des-ressources-naturelles-et-mines-artisanales-le-cas-de-lor-au-burkina-faso-102855

[5] http://www.vita.it/it/story/2018/11/26/nelle-viscere-del-burkina-faso-il-forziere-delloro-africano/257/

[6] Michel Ben Arrous, Lazare Ki-Zerbo, “African studies on geography from below”, Codesria, Dakar 2009

[7] Natascia Aquilano, “Nelle viscere del Burkina Faso, il forziere dell’oro africano”, http://www.vita.it/it/story/2018/11/26/nelle-viscere-del-burkina-faso-il-forziere-delloro-africano/257 

[8] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html

[9] Autori Vari, “Calendario Atlante De Agostini 2021”, Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara 2020, page 410

[10] Le Faso.net, https://lefaso.net/spip.php?article99247

[11] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1131013/economie/burkina-faso-les-promesses-de-lor/

[12] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1133049/economie/burkina-faso-de-la-resistance-a-la-relance/

[13] https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/dossiers-pays/burkina-faso/presentation-du-burkina-faso/

[14] https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/dossiers-pays/burkina-faso/presentation-du-burkina-faso/

[15] https://www.agenceecofin.com/economie/2303-86472-top-10-des-pays-africains-qui-connaitront-les-plus-fortes-croissances-economiques-en-2021-selon-la-bad

[16] Agence Ecofin, https://www.agenceecofin.com/economie/2303-86472-top-10-des-pays-africains-qui-connaitront-les-plus-fortes-croissances-economiques-en-2021-selon-la-bad

[17] “Jeune Afrique”, “Une nouvelle Afrique?”, n° 3089, June 2020, page 168

[18] “Jeune Afrique”, “Une nouvelle Afrique ?”, n° 3089, June 2020, page 168

[19] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1133049/economie/burkina-faso-de-la-resistance-a-la-relance/

[20] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1133049/economie/burkina-faso-de-la-resistance-a-la-relance/

[21] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1131013/economie/burkina-faso-les-promesses-de-lor/

[22] https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/real-gdp-purchasing-power-parity/country-comparison/

[23] https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/real-gdp-growth-rate/country-comparison/

[24] https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/burkina-faso/#economy

[25] https://www.agcnews.eu/burkina-faso-rimpasto-di-governo-e-jihad/

[26] https://www.blaisecompaore.com/en/political-and-military-career/1960-1983-engagement/

[27] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/27/jazz-and-revolution-burkina-faso-recalls-the-spirit-of-sankara ; https://archive.is/20130222180430/http://www.thomassankara.net/spip.php?page=imprimir_articulo&id_article=527&lang=fr

[28] https://web.archive.org/web/20161010234702/http://www.infoaut.org/index.php/blog/approfondimenti/item/13137-chi-era-thomas-sankara

[29] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html

[30] http://www.resistenze.org/sito/os/gr/osgrdc05-012450.htm

[31] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html

[32] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwHKxGvpD_U

[33] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwHKxGvpD_U

[34] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html

[35] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html

[36] https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/POL1000011988ENGLISH.PDF ; https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/125821/bk-country-profiles-burkina-faso-part1-010190-en.pdf?sequence=17&isAllowed=y

[37] http://www.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-bf528d64-3c0d-44c2-bffb-70baf051624d.html ; https://www.repubblica.it/solidarieta/diritti-umani/2015/10/14/news/thomas_sankara-125097440/

[38] https://www.jeuneafrique.com/depeches/8036/politique/burkina-ceremonie-dinvestiture-pour-michel-kafando-ses-pouvoirs-en-question/ ; https://www.rfi.fr/fr/afrique/20151221-assassinat-sankara-mandat-arret-international-contre-compaore ; http://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/index2.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.unhchr.ch%2Ftbs%2Fdoc.nsf%2F%28Symbol%29%2F8d3fe6b44a5f39bdc1257172005150ec%3FOpendocument

[39] Autori Vari, “Atlante delle guerre e dei conflitti del mondo”, Terra Nuova Edizioni, Firenze 2019, pages 91-92

[40] Amaury Hauchard, “Un voto impossibile nel nord del Burkina Faso”, https://www.internazionale.it/notizie/amaury-hauchard/2020/11/20/burkina-faso-elezioni-attacchi

[41] Giuseppe Mistretta, “Le vie dell’Africa. Il futuro del continente fra Europa, Italia, Cina e nuovi attori”, Infinito edizioni, Formigine (Modena) 2020, pages 61-63

[42] Giuseppe Mistretta, “Le vie dell’Africa. Il futuro del continente fra Europa, Italia, Cina e nuovi attori”, Infinito edizioni, Formigine (Modena) 2020, pages 61-63

[43] Giuseppe Mistretta, “Le vie dell’Africa. Il futuro del continente fra Europa, Italia, Cina e nuovi attori”, Infinito edizioni, Formigine (Modena) 2020, pages 61-63

[44] Giuseppe Mistretta, “Le vie dell’Africa. Il futuro del continente fra Europa, Italia, Cina e nuovi attori”, Infinito edizioni, Formigine (Modena) 2020, pages 61-63

[45] Giuseppe Mistretta, “Le vie dell’Africa. Il futuro del continente fra Europa, Italia, Cina e nuovi attori”, Infinito edizioni, Formigine (Modena) 2020, pages 61-63

[46] Osservatorio sulla Sicurezza Internazionale Luiss, https://sicurezzainternazionale.luiss.it/2021/02/10/presidente-del-burkina-faso-incontra-vertici-dellue

[47] https://frontierenews.it/2011/10/thomas-sankara-il-rivoluzionario-dellafrica-antimperialista/

[48] Rémi Bazillier-Victoire Girard, “Malédiction des ressources naturelles et mines artisanales: le cas de l’ or au Burkina Faso”, https://theconversation.com/malediction-des-ressources-naturelles-et-mines-artisanales-le-cas-de-lor-au-burkina-faso-102855

[49] Isabelle Hanne,” Pour tout l’or du Burkina Faso” https://www.liberation.fr/apps/2015/08/orpaillage-burkina/

[50] https://www.repubblica.it/venerdi/2021/01/15/news/burkina_faso_jihad_africa_al_qaeda_isis_reportage-282102011/

[51] https://www.repubblica.it/venerdi/2021/01/15/news/burkina_faso_jihad_africa_al_qaeda_isis_reportage-282102011/

[52] Angelo Martinengo, “Africa. Grande corsa all’ oro, monitoraggio dell’estrazione mineraria delle Nazioni Unite”, “Faro di Roma”,18 Gennaio 2021, https://www.farodiroma.it/africa-grande-corsa-alloro-monitoraggio-dellestrazione-mineraria-delle-nazioni-unite-di-a-martinengo/

[53] Natascia Aquilano, “Nelle viscere del Burkina Faso, il forziere dell’oro africano”, http://www.vita.it/it/story/2018/11/26/nelle-viscere-del-burkina-faso-il-forziere-delloro-africano/257 

[54] Natascia Aquilano, “Nelle viscere del Burkina Faso, il forziere dell’oro africano”, http://www.vita.it/it/story/2018/11/26/nelle-viscere-del-burkina-faso-il-forziere-delloro-africano/257 

[55] http://www.vita.it/it/story/2018/11/26/nelle-viscere-del-burkina-faso-il-forziere-delloro-africano/257

[56] Rémi Bazillier-Victoire Girard, “Malédiction des ressources naturelles et mines artisanales: le cas de l’or au Burkina Faso”, https://theconversation.com/malediction-des-ressources-naturelles-et-mines-artisanales-le-cas-de-lor-au-burkina-faso-102855

[57] https://www.lepoint.fr/culture/docu-tele-public-senat-poussiere-d-or-au-burkina-faso-14-04-2016-2032220_3.php#

[58] https://www.droit-afrique.com/uploads/Burkina-Code-minier-2015.pdf ; https://www.mines.gov.bf/informations/actualite/details?tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=79&cHash=1374780800c09c1983a02a12ff01f074

[59] Jeune Afrique, “Une nouvelle Afrique”, n° 3089, 20 Juin 2020, page 174

[60] https://www.tagesschau.de/wirtschaft/mordaschow-ein-oligarch-rettet-tui-101.html

[61] https://eugene.kaspersky.com/2017/09/15/when-in-cherepovets-visit-severstal-steel-plant/

[62] https://www.forbes.com/profile/alexey-mordashov-family/

[63] https://www.forbes.com/profile/alexey-mordashov-family/

[64] Mathieu Brier, “La riche idée du développement Enquête sur une Montagne d’or” https://www.cairn.info/revue-z-2018-1-page-32.htm

[65] https://www.nordgold.com/about/history/

[66] https://www.nordgold.com/upload/iblock/1b1/Nordgold%202020%20Annual%20Report.pdf, pages 6-7

[67] https://www.nordgold.com/about/geography/

[68] Emmanuuel Atcha “ La filière aurifère au Burkina Faso:le russe Nordgold maintient son rythme en 2019”


[69] https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=it&sl=en&u=https://www.nordgold.com/&prev=search&pto=aue ; Par Malicgk Diawara, “Mines- Nikolas Zelensky :< L’ Afrique a une place centrale dans notre stratégie>” Le Point -èconomie”, 17 Février 2017

[70] Giovanni Porzio, “Burkina Faso. Il Paese del terrore”, “Il Venerdì “- “la Repubblica” 15 Gennaio 2021, www.repubblica.it

[71] Obiectjf Afrique n° 209, 7 Octobre 2020, https://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/Articles/2020/10/12/a-la-une-d-objectif-afrique

[72] “Non sempre l’oro luccica”, “Sguardi”, 1/2016, page 4, https://vedere-e-agire.ch/content/uploads/2016/02/BROT_Dossier_0116_IT_web1.pdf

[73] Mathieu Brier, “La riche idée du développement Enquête sur une Montagne d’or” https://www.cairn.info/revue-z-2018-1-page-32.htm

[74] https://www.miningmagazine.com/development/news/1376942/perenti-exiting-burkina-faso-contracts ; https://www.afr.com/companies/mining/perenti-rocked-by-deadly-terrorist-attack-20191107-p538b9 ; https://www.miningweekly.com/article/perenti-to-exit-northern-burkina-faso-2019-12-02 ; https://www.reuters.com/article/us-perenti-operations-africa-idUSKBN1Y605B

[75] https://www.peaceinsight.org/en/articles/back-future-burkina-faso/?location=burkina-faso&theme=

[76] 2015.10.30 IHS Global insight on Nordgold

[77] https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/extractive-imperialism-and-resistance-burkina-faso ; 2020.09.18 Burkina Faso Extractive Imperialism And Resistance

[78] https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/extractive-imperialism-and-resistance-burkina-faso ; 2020.09.18 Burkina Faso Extractive Imperialism And Resistance

[79] https://cotedivoire.mid.ru/web/cote-d-ivoire-fr

[80] https://www.mid.ru/en/maps/bf/-/asset_publisher/wSGsCU0eYGOZ/content/id/3982790 ; https://www.mid.ru/en/maps/bf/-/asset_publisher/wSGsCU0eYGOZ/content/id/3888047

[81] https://tradingeconomics.com/burkina-faso/corruption-rank ; https://tradingeconomics.com/burkina-faso/corruption-index

[82] https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/burkina-faso/https://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=uv&v=65&l=it

[83] https://www.peaceinsight.org/en/articles/back-future-burkina-faso/?location=burkina-faso&theme=

[84] https://www.un-page.org/planning-green-future-burkina-faso ; https://reliefweb.int/report/burkina-faso/burkina-faso-land-incorruptible-path-networked-future

[85] https://www.oneplanetnetwork.org/resource/plan-national-de-developpement-economique-et-social-pndes ; http://www.pndes2020.com/pdf/06-en.pdf

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